The urinary tract includes the organ system primarily responsible for cleaning and filtering excess fluid and waste material from the blood. The urinary system is made up of the following:
The kidneys also function as glands that produce hormones necessary for building red blood cells and regulating blood pressure.  The urinary system works with the lungs, skin and intestines to maintain the balance of chemicals and water in the body.
The genitourinary tract tissues are constantly exposed to adverse conditions that result in a wide variety of abnormalities including congenital anomalies, cancer, trauma, infection, inflammation, and iatrogenic injuries; age-related disorders are also prevalent.
Estimates of the global burden of disease indicate that diseases of the kidney and urinary tract account for approximately 830,000 deaths and 18,467,000 disability-adjusted life years annually, ranking them 12th among causes of death (1.4 percent of all deaths) and 17th among causes of disability (1.0 percent of all disability-adjusted life years).
Factors associated with the progression of kidney and urinary tract diseases include the following:
- Unmodifiable variables
- old age
- Risk factors susceptible to social and educational interventions
- low birthweight
- alcohol abuse
- illicit drug abuse
- analgesic abuse and exposure to toxic substance such as lead
- sedentary lifestyle
- Risk factors susceptible to pharmacological interventions
- poor glycemic control in diabetic patients
- Biological markers
- insulin-resistant syndrome
- serum creatinine 
Publications and factsheets
Overview of Genitourinary Disorders 
Urinary System: Facts, Functions & Diseases 
Urogenital Disorders (University of Rochester Medical Center) 
Kidneys and Urinary System (U.S. National Library of Medicine) 
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