Neoplasm is an abnormal mass of tissue that results when cells divide more than they should or do not die when they should. A neoplasm can be benign (not cancer), potentially malignant, or malignant (cancer).
Cancer can result from abnormal proliferation of any of the different kinds of cells in the body, so there are more than a hundred distinct types of cancer, which can vary substantially in their behavior and response to treatment. The most important issue in cancer pathology is the distinction between benign and malignant tumors.
A tumor is any abnormal proliferation of cells, which may be either benign or malignant. A benign tumor, such as a common skin wart, remains confined to its original location, neither invading surrounding normal tissue nor spreading to distant body sites.
A malignant tumor, however, is capable of both invading surrounding normal tissue and spreading throughout the body via the circulatory or lymphatic systems (metastasis). Only malignant tumors are properly referred to as cancers, and it is their ability to invade and metastasize that makes cancer so dangerous.
Cancer is the second leading cause of death globally and is estimated to account for 9.6 million death in 2018. Lung, prostate, colorectal, stomach and liver cancer are the most common types of cancer in men, while breast, colorectal, lung, cervix and thyroid cancer are the most common among women. 
Cancer is a leading cause of death worldwide, accounting for an estimated 9.6 million deaths in 2018. The most common cancers are:
- Lung (2.09 million cases)
- Breast (2.09 million cases)
- Colorectal (1.80 million cases)
- Prostate (1.28 million cases)
- Skin cancer (non-melanoma) (1.04 million cases)
- Stomach (1.03 million cases)
The most common causes of cancer death are cancers of:
- Lung (1.76 million deaths)
- Colorectal (862 000 deaths)
- Stomach (783 000 deaths)
- Liver (782 000 deaths)
- Breast (627 000 deaths) 
Publications and factsheets
Fact sheets on cancer from IARC 
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) 
Cancer control: knowledge into action 
- www.who.int | health-topics cancer
- www.who.int | cancer
- globocan.iarc.fr | fact sheets cancer
- www.who.int | cancer
- icd.who.int | 10/2016
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