Lead is a naturally occurring toxic metal found in the earth's crust. The widespread usage of it has caused large-scale environmental pollution, human exposure and significant public health problems in many parts of the world. The world's largest lead mining countries for 2016 are China, Australia, the United States, Peru, Mexico, Russia, India, Bolivia, Sweden, Turkey, Iran, Kazakhstan, Poland, South Africa, North Korea, Ireland, Macedonia and others. The only place on earth where the rocks contain the greatest amount of lead is the Kohistan-Ladakh arc in the north of Pakistan [1].

Sources of environmental pollution are, in particular, mining, smelting, industrial production and recycling. More global lead consumption is in the production of lead acid batteries for motor vehicles. However, lead is also used in many other products, such as pigments, paints, solders, stained glass windows, lead crystal dishes, ammunition, ceramic glazes, jewelry, toys, as well as some cosmetics and traditional medicine. Drinking water from lead pipes or lead-soldered pipes may contain lead. Young children are especially vulnerable to the toxic effects of lead. People may be exposed to lead through professional and environmental sources due to inhalation of particles, consumption water and food (from containers made using lead glaze or lead solder and game filled with lead ammunition [2] contaminated with lead. There is no concentration of lead in the body that is not hazardous to health [3] [4].

It is known that lead has important biochemical properties that contribute to its toxic effects on the body, while it causes disruption of molecular cells and intracellular changes through death. Lead competes with calcium, its ionic mechanism of action increases the generation of oxidative stress, impairs the intracellular metabolic system, alters the vasomotor action of smooth muscles by affecting the Ca AT phase. Affects genetic transcription of DNA by interacting with proteins binding nucleic acid, which may have implications for gene regulation [5].

Long-term exposure to lead in the body causes a number of disorders, such as:

               •         pathology of the nervous system [6] [7] [8]

               •         disorders of the gastrointestinal tract [9] [10]

               •         liver damage [11] [12] [13] [14] [15]

               •         damage to the cardiovascular system [16] [17] [18] [19] [20] [21]

               •         damage to the endocrine system [22] [23]

               •         developmental delays and behavioral disorders in children [24] [25]

               •         affects life expectancy [26] [27]

               •         pathology of the reproductive system [28] [29] [30] [31]

               •         kidney damage [32] [33] [34]

               •         violation of bone-mineral metabolism [35] [36] [37]

               •         cancer of the lungs, stomach, kidneys, breast and brain [38] [39]

According to research data, curcumin is one of the best means for preventing the development of pathological processes in the body caused by toxins [40].

Curcumin is the main curcuminoid [41] found in turmeric root [42].

Curcumin is one of the most widely tested natural compounds. Laboratory studies have shown that curcumin is a therapeutically useful tool for preventing or correcting the negative effects of lead on the body. The mechanism of action of curcumin is due to a protective chelating effect [43], restoration and increase in the activity of SOD [44], GSH [45], CAT [46], reduction of free radicals RNS [47] and ROS [48]. Curcumin influences the production of interleukins [49], and stops the inflammatory process by activation of NF-kB [50]. It has been scientifically proven that curcumin inhibits cell death by modulating activation protein 1 (AP-1) [51], reduces lipid circulation [52] by inhibiting fatty acid synthase [53] in adipocytes [54], and also reduces lipid peroxidation [55] and the level of cholesterol (LDL) [56] [57] [58] [59] [60].

Furthermore, in laboratory conditions curcumin has demonstrated multiple pharmacological properties, including antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anticarcinogenic, cardioprotective, hepatoprotective, antidepressant, immune-strengthening, and many others [61].

Unfortunately, these encouraging initial findings were not supported in human clinical trials due to the very low bioavailability of curcumin, which averaged no more than 0.1% [62]. This low bioavailability prevents curcumin from showing its therapeutic potential while taking as powder or extract.

It is worth noting that laboratory studies with curcumin have greatly increased interest in it all over the world, and this was especially evident in the segment of dietary supplements. On almost every supplement site, you can purchase preparations made from powder or turmeric extract and find information on the pharmacological effect of curcumin on dozens of diseases. This method of presenting information is a substitution of concepts, when laboratory findings are issued as clinical results. Neither turmeric extract, nor powder, is able to provide the pharmacological action that curcumin has shown in laboratory studies.

Increasing the bioavailability of curcumin has been the topic of many research teams for several decades [63]. Several technologies have already been developed to increase the bioavailability of curcumin. The most advanced technology for the delivery of active substances into the blood is liposomal [64].

Liposomal curcumin delivery technology allows to achieve the desired pharmacological effect in humans and animals, which has been demonstrated in thousands of laboratory studies [65] [66] [67].

References:

1       https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lead

2       https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s13280-019-01159-0

3       https://www.who.int/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/lead-poisoning-and-health

4       https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4961898/

5       https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1874356/

6       https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2858639/

7       https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3909981/

8       https://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2014/840547/

9       https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5654721/

10     https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2708379/

11     https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5580229/

12   https://www.researchgate.net/publication/255571302_Some_effects_of_lead_contamination_on_liver_

        and_gallbladder_bile

13     http://ijt.arakmu.ac.ir/article-1-439-en.pdf

14     https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1319562X11000945

15     https://www.nature.com/articles/pr1979168.pdf?origin=ppub

16     https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1849948/

17    https://www.intechopen.com/books/cardiovascular-risk-factors/low-level-exposure-to-lead-as-a-

         cardiovascular-risk-factor

18     https://www.jstage.jst.go.jp/article/jts/43/11/43_623/_html/-char/en

19     https://www.hindawi.com/journals/isrn/2013/234034/

20     https://www.nature.com/articles/s41598-017-09701-4

21     https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5662044/

22     https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2FBF03345710

23     https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4934017/

24     https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3598508/

25     https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S2214999614000794

26     https://www.thelancet.com/journals/lanpub/article/PIIS2468-2667(18)30025-2/fulltext

27     https://jamanetwork.com/journals/jamainternalmedicine/fullarticle/214370

28     https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6309352/

29     https://www.cambridge.org/core/journals/zygote/article/impaired-hypothalamicpituitarytesticular-

         axis-activity-spermatogenesis-and-sperm-function-promote-infertility-in-males-with-lead-poisoning/

         7031884B0D3ADA7A2B7920662740F561

30     https://translate.google.co.th hl=en&tab=rT1#view=home&op=translate&sl=en&tl=ru&text=Effects%

         20of%20Lead%20on%20Reproductive%20Health

31     https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.3109/19396360903582216

32     https://www.kidney-international.org/article/S0085-2538(15)51899-1/fulltext

33     https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2796746/

34     https://core.ac.uk/download/pdf/82384903.pdf

35     https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1519349/

36     https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6323513/

37     https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3386851/

38     https://academic.oup.com/aje/article/166/9/1005/88762

39     https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4317251/

40     https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Curcumin

41     https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Curcuminoid

42     https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Turmeric

43     https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chelation

44     https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Superoxide_dismutase

45     https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Glutathione

46     https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Catalase

47     https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Reactive_nitrogen_species

48     https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Reactive_oxygen_species

49     https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Interleukin

50     https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/NF-%CE%BAB

51     https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/AP-1_transcription_factor

52     https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lipid

53     https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fatty_acid

54     https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Adipocyte

55     https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lipid_peroxidation

56     https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Low-density_lipoprotein

 

 

58    https://www.researchgate.net/publication/332178279_Therapeutic_potential_of_curcumin_against_

        lead-induced_toxicity_A_review

59     https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6770944/

60     https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/figure/10.3109/01480545.2015.1133637scroll=top&

         needAccess=true

61     https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5664031/

62     https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6770259/

63     https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3918523/

64     https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Liposome

65     https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3519006/

66     https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5557698/

67     https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5077137/

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