Biologically active trivalent chromium is found in food, air, water and soil. The world's largest producers of chrome ore in 2013 were South Africa — 48%, Kazakhstan — 13%, Turkey — 11%, India -10%, Finland, Zimbabwe, Iran, Brazil — 18% overall.

Hexavalent chromium is a toxic form of chromium. It caused by industrial pollution and comes in form of chromates and dichromates, which are strong oxidants with carcinogenic effect [1].

Chromium is widely used in various industries as an alloying additive in the smelting of various grades of steel for special hardness, strength, heat resistance and corrosion resistance. And also chromium is used in the tanning industry, at the enterprises of the paint and varnish industry, in the electroplating shops, the ceramic, match, pyrotechnic industries, as a reagent for the preparation of pigments, tanning agents, for seed dressing, in the production of film and photographic film. Chromium compounds are found in the wastewater of many industrial enterprises producing chromium salts, acetylene, tannins, aniline, linoleum, paper, paints, pesticides, plastics and others [2,3].

It is well known that toxic chromium compounds can disrupt cell growth, cause oxidative damage and oxidative stress, even dis-regulate lipid metabolism. They easily penetrate biological membranes and cause oxidative damage to proteins, lipids and DNA. They also demonstrate mutagenic and genotoxic mechanism of action [4].

Long-term exposure to toxic forms of chromium causes a number of disorders, such as:

• pathology of the skin and mucous membranes [5]
• pathological changes in the broncho-pulmonary apparatus [6]
• disruption of the cardiovascular system with further development of pathological processes [7]
• disruption of the autonomic nervous systems with further development of pathological processes [8]
• disruption of the gastrointestinal tract with further development of pathological processes [9,10]
• disorders of the hepatobiliary system [11]
• cancer of the lungs, larynx, bladder, kidney, testicles, bones and thyroid gland) [12]

According to research data, curcumin is one of the best means for preventing the development of pathological processes in the body caused by toxins [13].

Curcumin is the main curcuminoid [14] found in turmeric root [15].

Curcumin is one of the most widely tested natural compounds. Laboratory studies have shown that curcumin is a therapeutically useful tool for preventing or correcting the negative effects of chromium on the body.

The mechanism of action of curcumin is due to the protective effects against oxidative damage by ROS and preservation of activity of antioxidant enzymes [16]. Curcumin chelates [17] the toxicity of metals, promotes the restoration of GSH level [18], suppresses the opening of PTP [19], which in turn prevents lipid peroxidation [20] and loss of mitochondrial transmembrane potential [21].
Curcumin also stimulates 06-methylguanine DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) [22], a protein that is essential for cellular defense [23,24,25].

Furthermore, in laboratory conditions curcumin has demonstrated multiple pharmacological properties, including antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anticarcinogenic, cardioprotective, hepatoprotective, antidepressant, immune-strengthening, and many others [26].

Unfortunately, these encouraging initial findings were not supported in human clinical trials due to the very low bioavailability of curcumin, which averaged no more than 0.1% [27]. This low bioavailability prevents curcumin from showing its therapeutic potential while taking as powder or extract.

It is worth noting that laboratory studies with curcumin have greatly increased interest in it all over the world, and this was especially evident in the segment of dietary supplements.
On almost every supplement site, you can purchase preparations made from powder or turmeric extract and find information on the pharmacological effect of curcumin on dozens of diseases.
This method of presenting information is a substitution of concepts, when laboratory findings are issued as clinical results. Neither turmeric extract, nor powder, is able to provide the pharmacological action that curcumin has shown in laboratory studies.

Increasing the bioavailability of curcumin has been the topic of many research teams for several decades [28]. Several technologies have already been developed to increase the bioavailability of curcumin. The most advanced technology for the delivery of active substances into the blood is liposomal [29].

Liposomal curcumin delivery technology achieves the desired pharmacological effect in humans and animals, which has been demonstrated in thousands of laboratory studies [30,31].

References:

1            https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hexavalent_chromium

2            https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chromium

3            https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5008208/

4            https://op.europa.eu/en/publication-detail/-/publication/cb804ad3-7ff0-491c-a6e0-050ddb900a77/language-en

5            https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4765249/

6            https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1440778/

7            https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5458105/

8            https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1028729/

9            https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4522702/

10        https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3604738/

11        https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2FBF01623516

12        https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6369173/

13        https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Curcumin

14        https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Curcuminoid

15        https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Turmeric

16        https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Reactive_oxygen_species

17        https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chelation

18        https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Glutathione

19        https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mitochondrial_permeability_transition_pore

20        https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lipid_peroxidation

21        https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mitochondrial_fusion

22        https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/O-6-methylguanine-DNA_methyltransferase

23        https://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2013/424692/

24        https://www.researchgate.net/publication/308427138_The_Effect_of_Chromium_Picolinate_On_Liver_Enzymes_and_Neurotransmittersin_the_Male_Rats

25        https://eenvandaag.avrotros.nl/fileadmin/editorial/docs/chandraenvtoxicolpharmacol242007160.pdf

26        https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5664031/

27        https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6770259/

28        https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3918523/

29        https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Liposome

30        https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3519006/

31        https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5557698/

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